Gastroenterology Report, 2021, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1093/gastro/goab010
Published: 29 March 2021
Yumo Xie, Lishuo Shi, Xiaosheng He, Yanxin Luo
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer, are a major medical and economic burden worldwide and have the largest number of new cancer cases and cancer deaths each year. Esophageal and gastric cancers are most common in developing countries, while colorectal cancer forms the major GI malignancy in Western countries. However, a great shift in the predominant GI-cancer type is happening in countries under economically transitioning and, at the same time, esophageal and gastric cancers are reigniting in Western countries due to the higher exposure to certain risk factors. The development of all GI cancers is highly associated with lifestyle habits and all can be detected by identified precancerous diseases. Thus, they are all suitable for cancer screening. Here, we review the epidemiological status of GI cancers in China, the USA, and Europe; the major risk factors and their distribution in these regions; and the current screening strategies.